LABnews September- October 1999
The home page of the Supreme Court of Canada offers various communication services for citizens, parties and counsel. Citizen services include practical guidance on how to file applications for leave to appeal, deadlines, rules of procedure and court costs. Professional services include a weekly agenda of hearings, notices to the legal profession, statistics, press releases, as well as links to the full text of published judgements and case information.
The Canadian Supreme Court can be accessed at http://www.scc-csc.gc.ca/
The web page of the European Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance is accessible on the Europa server. It contains information on the role of the courts, their jurisdiction and rules of procedure, plenary sessions and chambers, recent case-law, press releases, texts relating to the institutions, judicial statistics etc. The site has recently been enriched with new materials on the Courts’ composition and organisation together with information on their publications.
The Courts can be accessed at http://europa.eu.int/cj/en/index.htm
The Japanese Patent Office provides Internet access to information on patent law, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, counterfeit goods, import regulations together with practical guidance on the procedures applied in obtaining industrial property rights, the corresponding fees, the methods of examination and the appeal mechanisms. Moreover, it provides access to the Industrial Property Digital Library which is a searchable database of patent information with more than 40 million documents, accessible free of charge to users via the Internet.
The JPO can be accessed at http://www.jpo-miti.go.jp/
In September 1999, on the basis of the principles contained in the Presidential Decree no. 318 of 1997, the Italian Communications Authority notified the national incumbent Telecom Italia S.p.A. that its market power in the following markets is deemed significant: market for fixed public networks and services (with a market share of about 90% in 1998); market of leased lines (with a market share of 90% during the same period); national interconnection market.
In the mobile market, the Authority also decided that Telecom Italia Mobile S.p.a. and Omnitel Pronto Italia S.p.a. retain significant market power in the public wireless telecommunication market (each one holding a market share of approximately 25%) and in the related interconnection market (the respective shares of the market being more than 25% for Telecom Italia Mobile S.p.A. and 18% for Omnitel Pronto Italia S.p.A). The decision on the presumption of SMP is taken by the Authority on the criterion of the operator’s ability to influence market conditions and its access to financial resources.
The decision is available on the Italian Communications Authority web site at http://www.agcom.it/
On 22 September 1999 two major ringleaders in a computer hacker organisation, known as the "Phone Masters," were sentenced in federal court for hacking into computer systems belonging to Sprint Corporation, Southwestern Bell and GTE. Corey Lindsley, age 32, from Oregon and Calvin Cantrell, age 30, from Texas, are reported to have penetrated numerous telecommunications networks and computer systems owned by credit reporting agencies, utility providers and governmental agencies. The hackers illegally obtained long distance calling card numbers and sold the stolen numbers. They organised their assaults on the computers through teleconferencing and utilised the encryption programme PGP to hide the data which they traded with each other. Both defendants pleaded guilty to charges of fraud and related criminal activity under the provisions of the legislation on Access Devices and Computers. Corey Lindsley was sentenced to forty-one months imprisonment and Calvin Cantrell to two years imprisonment. Each of them was also ordered by the court to pay $10,000 to the corporations affected by their activities..
Press release on the US Department of Justice website at http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/phonmast.htm
Press release available on the ACCC website at http://www.accc.gov.au/media/mediar.htm
The 1999 Communications Review proposes a number of policy orientations for the review of the current regulatory framework for liberalisation and harmonisation of the market for electronic communications. It draws the lessons from the convergence debate, the annual reporting on the implementation of the current framework and the report on digital television. It encompasses, finally, radio spectrum policy proposals. Among other issues, the new regulatory framework aims at promoting an open and competitive market for communications and associated services (conditional access services, application program interfaces etc.) by ensuring affordable access for consumers in terms of price, quality and value for money. Data protection and privacy, transparency of tariffs, universal service funding, equitable access conditions for specific social groups including elderly and disabled users, will by reducing regional disparities assist with the introduction and take-up of new technologies.
Future regulation should be light-handed, technologically neutral, enhance legal certainty in a dynamic market and reduced to the minimum necessary to meet clearly defined policy objectives. The Commission will consult on the proposals contained in.
This Communication is available for public consultation until 15 February 2000 at http://www.ispo.cec.be/infosoc/telecompolicy/review99/
On 20 October 1999, the Federal Trade Commission issued the final ruling to implement the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA), which aims at protecting the privacy of children using the Internet. Under the ruling, which will become effective in April 2000, certain commercial websites must obtain verifiable parental consent before collecting, using, or disclosing personal information from children under 13 years old. The statute defines "verifiable parental consent" as "any reasonable effort taking into consideration available technology to ensure that a parent of a child authorises the collection, use, and disclosure" of a child's personal information. Key provisions of the final rule include the website operators’ obligation to post on their home page statements of their information practices, their name and contact details, the types of personal information collected from children, how such personal information is used, and whether personal information is disclosed to third parties. The final rule temporarily adopts a "sliding scale" approach that allows websites to vary their consent methods in accordance with the uses envisaged for the information obtained from the child. It also presumes some pursuits for which parental consent is not required, such as "homework help", on-line newsletters or other information-related activities. Finally, the ruling recognises the role of schools in obtaining consent for students and includes a "safe harbour" scheme for industry groups or others who wish to create self-regulatory programs to monitor participants' compliance.
The rules are available on the FTC site at http://www.ftc.gov/os/1999/9910/childrensprivacy.pdf
Press release available at http://www.ftc.gov/opa/1999/9910/childfinal.htm
On 19 October 1999, the American Civil Liberties Union filed a friend-of-the-court brief before a California appeals court in support of a public library asked by a parent to censor Internet access of all its patrons in order to control her own child's use of the Internet. The case ‘‘Kathleen R. v. City of Livermore’’ first arose in 1997 when the plaintiff's son used the Livermore Public Library computers to download some sexually explicit pictures that he printed out without letting his mother or any adult know what he was doing. "Kathleen R.'s" original complaint, in which she argued that the library's open-access policy constituted a "public nuisance", was dismissed by a lower court two years ago. In an amended complaint filed last year, she argued that the library has a constitutional obligation to protect minors from pornographic images by blocking Internet access for all library patrons. Both her claims are now at issue before the appeals court. According to the ACLU brief (available at http://www.aclu.org/court/CtAppBrief.html), it is no more legal for a parent to compel a library to censor the Internet than it is for the government to do so. Besides, the library policy explicitly informs patrons that the library does not provide monitoring or supervision of minors' Internet use and that it is the parents’ responsibility to supervise their children's Internet use so that the material their children access is consistent with their own family's values (compare with the Mainstream Loudoun v. Board of Trustees of the Loudoun County Library case reported in LABnews March April 1998 at http://www2.echo.lu/legal/en/news/9804/chapter5.html#3).
On 5 July 1999, the Austrian regulatory authority Telekom-Control Kommission issued a landmark decision determining the general conditions of unbundled access to individual subscriber lines ‘‘the local loop’’ of the incumbent Telekom Austria's network. The regulatory authority confirmed that under the relevant Austrian statutory telecommunications law (sec 37 et seq. Telecommunications act and sec 2 et seq. Interconnection Ordinance), a dominant operator is in principle obliged to grant other users access to unbundled parts of their networks.
Unbundled access may be refused only for specific reasons, such as particular requirements deemed essential under the provisions of the ONP-Framework Directive or because of lack of technical feasibility. The alternative operators' request for partial unbundling, i.e., access only to parts of an individual subscriber line, was, however - at least for the time being - denied by the regulator. By determining the monthly usage fee payable by the alternative operators to Telekom Austria for an individual subscriber line, the authority resolved one of the most controversial issues in the public discussion surrounding the decision. The regulator also entitled the alternative operators to use the subscriber lines for the deployment of high-bit-rate transmission systems, at the same time laying down the principles for physical collocation of both the incumbent's and the alternative operators' unbundling equipment. The decision remains in force until 30 September 2000, at which time the authority envisages a reassessment of the unbundling issue in the light of the development of local competition.
The decision can be accessed at http://www.tkc.at
On 27 September 1999, ART published the results of its public consultation on the technical, financial and regulatory aspects of internet telephony. From a technical viewpoint, the telecommunications industry considers that the provision of voice services over IP requires substantial investments in order to ensure interconnection and interoperability with the PSTN. Due to their investment requirements, these services are mainly targeted at this early stage on the business community. From a regulatory perspective, operators consider it necessary to ensure harmonised rules at least on a European level. The regulation of different infrastructures used to deliver similar services should be neutral and unrelated to whether services are to be designated public or private communication. Regulation should also support the sustainable development of both PSTN and Internet-based voice services by avoiding
the provisional imposition of drastic tariff decreases considered likely to destabilise the market. In the converging environment, the rights and obligations of the various actors should be proportionate to the rate of their investment. Quality of service, interconnection and numbering are also critical success parameters in the emerging internet telephony market.
Press release available on the ART website at: http://www.art-telecom.fr/communiques/index.htm
On 9 September 1999, the European Commission brought an action against Belgium before the European Court of Justice for failure to implement full competition in the telecommunications sector, in accordance with Directive 90/388/EEC, as amended by Directive 96/19/EC. The infringement case concerns the non-adoption of provisions determining the cost-accounting method to be implemented by Belgacom, the country’s incumbent operator, with regard to the provision of voice telephony and public telecommunications networks. Under Directive 90/388/EEC Belgium had to ensure that this method identified the cost elements incorporated in the interconnection charge, which should contain only the proper cost components. According to the timetable set by Directive 96/19/EC, the measures in question should have been in place since the first half of 1997.
The Commission also decided on 28 July to refer to the Court another infringement case concerning Belgium. This related to the transposition into national law of the provisions of the EU rules on the method of calculation of the net cost of universal service provision and the contributions of operators to its financing on the telecommunications market. Ten infringement cases are currently pending against Belgium in the field of telecommunications, with the Commission already having decided to refer five of these cases to the Court.
Press release available at http://europa.eu.int/rapid/start/cgi/guesten.ksh?p_action.gettxt=gt&doc=IP/99/687|0|RAPID&lg=EN
In September 1999 the Australian Government announced light-touch legislation in relation to personal information held by the private sector. The proposed rules will allow for the recognition of self-regulatory privacy codes backed by default legislative principles and a complaint-handling regime that will apply where there is no applicable privacy code. The self-regulatory codes and the default legislative regime will provide alternatives that are intended to offer equivalent standards of protection for individuals in their dealings with the private sector. This will secure an essentially level playing field for private-sector organisations and individuals, irrespective of whether an organisation is covered by a code or by the default legislative provisions. The legislation will contain standards for handling personal information and will require privacy codes also to incorporate such standards. Breach of those standards will constitute an interference with an individual's privacy.
The Privacy Commissioner will be responsible for approving privacy codes, providing assistance and advice to organisations, handling some complaints, and in general promoting an awareness and understanding of the scheme. The legislation is expected to be introduced into the federal Parliament later this year and to come into full effect as of July 2001.
More details available at http://law.gov.au/infopaper/infopaper.html
On 14 September 1999 the decree containing the minimum security and data protection measures to be taken in electronic and conventional data processing systems was published in the Official Journal. Comprising ten articles, the decree seeks to implement the Italian data protection legislation of 1996, as subsequently amended. More specifically, the privacy decree defines the technical, operational and procedural safeguards applicable for the guaranteeing of personal data integrity and security. A system of personal identification codes and administrative authorisations for processing and transmission of personal data is to be administered by the independent regulatory authority, the Garante per la tutela dei dati personali. In order to monitor the application of the law, the regulator will have to exercise its inspection powers and concurrent judicial protection for the individual on civil and criminal grounds.
The text of the decree is available on the Internet at http://188.8.131.52/MV/gazzette_ufficiali/216-99/2.htm
On 29 October 1999, the US Government announced a new set of proposed federal regulations protecting the privacy of electronically-stored medical records. Produced by the Department of Health and Human Services in collaboration with a number of federal agencies, the regulations - which are available for public comment for a period of sixty days - are the first federal protective legislation covering medical privacy. Under the draft rules, health care institutions and entities may use protected health information to create de-identified information by removing, coding, encrypting, or otherwise eliminating or concealing the information that makes such information individually identifiable. Information is presumed de-identified if the person’s identifiers (personal details, address, phone numbers, social security-, medical record and health plan beneficiary numbers, Internet Protocol address number, finger or voice prints, photographic images etc.) have been removed or otherwise concealed. The Department of Health and Human Services began drafting the regulations when Congress failed to pass federal legislation covering medical privacy on August 21 this year.
The Regulations are can be accessed on the EPIC website at http://www.epic.org/privacy/medical/HHS_medical_privacy_regs.html
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is pursuing an open discussion on electronic signature standardisation in business transactions. The action addresses some basic needs of secure electronic commerce and of secure electronic document exchange in purchase requisitions, contracts and invoice applications. It provides specifications for a selected set of technical items needed to meet minimum interoperability requirements in four main aspects of the standardisation process: naming, including the procedures and legislation needed for unambiguous identification of a signer, person or entity that can be held responsible for its electronic signature, which must moreover be easily recognised and located; format of public key certificates and Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) through consideration of profiling of public key certificates and CRLs containing keys dedicated to non-repudiation based on mandatory cryptographic algorithms and hash functions; electronic signature-token format, which must be defined to support the concept of evidence so as to be usable in bilateral/multilateral electronic signatures over the same contract; selection of protocols to inter-operate with Trust Service Providers (TSPs), users and Certificate Repositories. The final draft of the ETSI Standard was scheduled for approval by the ETSI Technical Committee, Security (SEC) in September ´99.
More information can be found in the "ES Mission Statement" and the Electronic Signature Report, both available at http://www.etsi.org/sec/
In August 1999, the Italian Regulatory Authority for Information Technology in the Public Administration (AIPA) issued an order establishing the modalities for the registration of certification entities. Under the order a number of documents such as a security plan and an operative handbook will have to be produced by the registrant along with the application form. Decisions on admittance must be sustained and in case of refusal a second application may be filed six months after the date of the decision. If the Authority grants the request, the certification authority is registered in the national list, which is updated by AIPA and made available on Internet.
The Italian version of the Order is available at the AIPA web site at http://www.aipa.it/servizi[3/normativa[4/circolari[2/aipacr22.asp
In September 1999, the French Minister of Justice presented the country’s electronic signature bill. Under preparation for almost three years, the bill is scheduled to come before the National Assembly for a first reading within the next months. It aims at re-specifying the legal definition of proof in order to adapt the law of proof to the requirements of electronic commerce. The proposed bill will necessitate amendment of articles 1316 and 1322 of the French Civil Code to enable digital signatures in commercial transactions to be deemed valid and legally binding. Electronically signed documents will be granted equal status with documents signed by hand, provided both that the signer can be identified and the signature verified in the framework of a trustworthy identification system. Such a system would have to guarantee the signature’s integrity and its link with the signer throughout the entire commercial transaction. The specific conditions of validity of the electronically signed documents is to be defined by decree in the Council of State.
The draft bill and its explanatory memorandum can be accessed at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/citoyen/actua.htm
On 13 September 1999, the Global Business Dialogue on Electronic Commerce (GBDe) a world-wide collaborative network of companies and trade associations engaged in the field of electronic commerce, released a set of recommendations agreed by its members during the network’s inaugural conference in Paris. These recommendations, all arrived at by consensus, are addressed to representatives of government and public administration, parliaments and international organisations, and concern the elaboration of a future policy framework for electronic commerce. They cover various aspects of e-business such as market access, authentication and security, content and liability issues, data protection and tax and tariffs.
As regards taxation, the GBDe recommends that governments make permanent and binding the WTO's current practice of not imposing customs duties on electronic transmissions. New taxes should not be imposed on electronic commerce and Internet transactions should not be discriminated against by comparison with non-electronic forms of commerce. The responsibility for compliance with indirect taxes should remain with the vendor/supplier unless and until the individual consumer can be made responsible in a convenient manner at the place of consumption. Solutions that may work well on a purely local basis, such as voluntary registration schemes or unilateral reclassification of such products as services, should be refocused towards globally-acceptable rules.
The recommendations are available on the GBDe website at http://www.gbd.org/conference/recommendations.html
On 12 and 13 October 1999 the OECD brought together representatives of consumer, civil liberties, human rights, Internet providers, labour organisations, business and governments to discuss the critical regulatory issues posed by electronic commerce. The issues analysed included access to the Internet for all, consumer rights, governance in cyberspace and privacy protection. Rather than embrace the call for industry-led self-regulation, the Public Voice participants opted for co-regulation and urged governments to take a stronger regulatory stance. According to OECD officials, the "Guidelines for Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce," drafted over the past two years by business leaders, government officials and representatives of consumer groups, are likely to be approved before the end of the year. However, difficult issues of applicable law or dispute resolution remain still pending. The new action plan lists almost 60 initiatives ranging from on-line databases providing instant information on the trustworthiness of web traders to so-called trustmark schemes that force businesses to comply with stringent rules of good practice.
Information about the OECD forum on electronic commerce available at http://www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/it/ec/act/paris_ec/index.htm
Information about the Public Voice forum available at http://www.thepublicvoice.org/
On 28 September 1999, the US Department of Commerce, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), and Network Solutions, Inc. (NSI) announced that they had tentatively reached a series of five agreements to resolve outstanding critical differences among the three parties. Under the agreements NSI will recognise ICANN’s authority on Internet governance issues and become an ICANN-accredited registrar for the .com, .org, and .net generic top level domains.
In accordance with the Registry Agreement between the two bodies and future consensus policies, NSI will continue registering these domains for the next four years. It will also participate in the funding of ICANN through registry and registrar fees, providing that they are equitably apportioned. Moreover, all accredited registrars will be required to provide continuing public access to "WHOIS" data, with the InterNIC website being maintained as a public information site with a directory of links to accredited registrars. The agreements have been posted for a thirty-day public comment period on the ICANN website at http://www.icann.org/agreements.htm and are to come before the Board for final consideration at its November meeting.
The Italian Government recently implemented European Community Directive 9/96 on the legal protection of databases. Under the terms of the related Italian decree, published in the Official Gazette on 15 June 1999, protection is extended to databases which both constitute an author’s intellectual work and are covered by copyright. The same protection applies for databases generated as a result of investments in order to prevent extraction and/or re-utilisation of their contents. In this latter case, Italian Law recognises a "sui generis right" to the author, the purpose being to limit extraction or re-utilisation of the contents of such databases. The decree also introduces new provisions covering the contents of Directive 9/96, for example the extension to the database sector of principles applied in computer software programmes. As a result, the employer now withholds all rights over the activity of the employee in the event that the database is a natural result of professional duties or if such activity has been performed under the direct orders of the employee.
The Italian version of the Decree can be consulted at http://www.senato.it/parlam/leggi/deleghe/99169dl.htm
Under an agreement signed with the EU, Russia has agreed to extend copyright protection to European sound recordings produced before 1995. As a result of the Agreement, announced on 18 October 1999, European pop classics and other classical producers will enjoy effective protection from piracy and illegal copying. Until recently, Russian recordings produced as far back as 1943 enjoyed protection, while only those European recordings produced since 1995 were protected.
Russia has also undertaken to amend its legislation on copyright and related rights, trademarks, service marks, geographical indications and appellations of origin in order to comply with EU and international standards. In order to implement the new rules, the EU will provide Russia with technical assistance. Amendments to the Russian copyright law will bring the Russian system up to European standards, ensuring the necessary protection for all music rights-holders. The agreement also addresses IPR enforcement in the country which falls short of the international standards set out in the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property rights.
Press release available at http://europa.eu.int/rapid/start/cgi/guesten.ksh?p_action.gettxt=gt&doc=IP/99/761|0|RAPID&lg=EN
On 16 September 1999, the US Administration announced a new approach to encryption policy which simplifies export controls. Under the new policy (information available at http://www.pub.whitehouse.gov/uri-res/I2R?urn:pdi://oma.eop.gov.us/1999/9/16/17.text.1 ), any encryption commodity or software of any key length can now without a licence be exported after a technical review to commercial firms and other non-government end users in any country apart from seven countries considered to be supporters of terrorism. Exports previously allowed only for a company's internal use can now be used for communication with other firms, supply chains and customers.
Additionally, telecommunication and Internet service providers may use any encryption commodity or software to provide services to commercial firms and non-government end users. Exports to governments can be approved under a license. Foreign nationals working in the United States no longer need an export license to work for U.S. firms on encryption. Post-export reporting will now be required for export to a non-U.S. entity of any product above 64 bits. Although civil liberties groups welcomed the Administration's announcement, they cautioned that the scheduled "Cyberspace Electronic Security Act of 1999," would see to it that law enforcement maintains its ability to access decryption information. This is likely to provoke another, even more difficult, privacy battle as law enforcement agencies expand their efforts to win access to the keys and passwords that control access to electronic information (ACLU press release available at http://www.aclu.org/news/1999/n091699a.html ).
12. Books, Web sites and Events
CRYPTOGRAPHY & LIBERTY 1999: AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF ENCRYPTION POLICY, by Electronic Privacy Information Center, Paperback, 127 pages, June 1999, ISBN: 1893044033, Price: $15.00
In its second annual survey of encryption policy around the globe, the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) finds that there is a movement towards international relaxation of regulations relating to encryption products.
PRIVACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS : AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF PRIVACY LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS, Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), ISBN: 189304405X, 167 pages, price: $15.00.
Produced by EPIC in association with Privacy International this survey contains a comprehensive coverage of privacy, data protection, surveillance and freedom of information laws and practices in over fifty countries.
FILTERS & FREEDOM : FREE SPEECH PERSPECTIVES ON INTERNET CONTENT CONTROLS, Electronic Privacy Information Center, ISBN: 1893044068, 174 pages, price : $ 20.00.
Released by the Electronic Privacy Information Center, this collection of articles examines the potential problems of Internet rating and filtering systems with regard to free expression in cyberspace.
MAKING UNIVERSAL SERVICE POLICY : ENHANCING THE PROCESS THROUGH MULTIDISCIPLINARY EVALUATION, by Barbara A. Cherry (Editor), Allen Hammond (Editor), Steven S. Wildman, Hardcover, October 1999, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; ISBN: 0805824561, Price: $59.95.
This book deals with the social, economic and technical questions related to universal service in a competitive telecommunications market.
CODIGO DE LAS TELECOMUNICATIONES, by José Eugenio Soriano, Aranzadi, 1999, ISBN: 765099001, 2.612 pages, price : 101,13 EUR.
This Code contains a comprehensive collection of Spanish telecommunications legislation and regulations.
Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property
The Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property provides users with an overview of intellectual property law and international agreements together with technology and patent information and trademark searches.
Research and Documentation Center on Direct Democracy
Created within the Département de Droit Constitutionnel at the University of Geneva, the C2D is dedicated to an interdisciplinary approach to the study of direct democracy. The site contains a data base accessible via internet on the institutions of direct democracy in Switzerland, Europe and around the world.
Interconnection 99 - Global Experiences and Strategies for the New Millenium
The Grand Hotel Krasnapolsky, 23-24 November 1999, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
This conference will examine the new trends that are shaping interconnection agreements in the direction of increasing advancement of networks and IP-based services.
Organiser : IBC UK Conferences Ltd, Gilmoora House, 57-61 Mortimer Street, London W1N 8JX, Tel. + 44 171 637 4383 , Fax. + 44 171 631 3214.
Website : http://www.ibc-uk.com/
IFIP 8.5 Working Conference on Advances in Electronic Government, 10 -11 February 2000, Zaragoza, Spain.
This working conference will focus on legal, social, technical and organisational aspects of information infrastructures applied in the public administration.
Organisers : IFIP WG 8.5 (Information Systems in Public Administration), Department of Public Law, Center for Computers and Law, Universidad de Zaragoza.
Conference website : http://aequitas.encomix.es/call.html
Direct democracy : The Eastern and Central European Experience. International Conference, 25-26 February 2000, Budapest, Hungary.
This two-day conference will be held in English and will examine the theoretical aspects of direct democracy, the existing institutions in different Eastern and Central European countries and the regional and local direct democracy experiences.
Conference website : http://c2d.unige.ch/col2000/overview.htm
"e-Commerce and e-Tailing:The (R)evolution continues" 4th Annual University of Minnesota Conference On Electronic Commerce, 27-28 March 2000, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, USA.
The conference will focus on the business, social, economic and consumer aspects of the digital environment.
Conference website: http://www.iii.csom.umn.edu/ECConf2000/title.html
"Electronic commerce: The end of the beginning" 13th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, 19-12 June 2000, Bled, Slovenia.
Organised by the University of Maribor this conference will focus on the technical, operational, economic and regulatory aspects of e-business.
Conference website : http://ecom.fov.uni-mb.si/ECOMHome.nsf
Published by the European Commission